»KurdWatch« is an independent Internet portal that reports on human rights abuses against the Kurdish population in Syria.
We tell the stories of these people in order to make them accessible to an international public.
The statistics reflect the human rights violations we have registered since 2009 - not the actual number of violations.
1. Execution of the death penalty takes place only after a hearing before the amnesty committee and with the consent of the president.
2. Execution takes place by hanging; the place of execution is the interior of the penal institution or another place named in the penal system decree. 3. Executions are forbidden on Fridays, Sundays and national or religious holidays.
4. If pregnancy is established, execution will be postponed until after childbirth.
The maximum sentence to hard labor or imprisonment, to deportation, forced detention or the deprivation of civil rights is fifteen years; the minimum is three years, unless the law contains special provisions.
Anyone sentenced to hard labor is required to perform strenuous work commensurate with their physical abilities within or outside of the penal institution.
The prisoner is required to perform the work he selects at the beginning of the prison term; he cannot be given an assignment outside of the penal institution or be forced to wear prison garments against his will.
The deprivation of civil rights means:
1. loss of eligibility for public office, as well as loss of the right to a national pension;
2. loss of eligibility for sectarian or union office, as well as loss of the right to a pension or salary;
3. loss of the right to receive privileges or make claims against the state;
4. loss of eligibility to stand for election and the right to vote, as well as loss of all remaining civil, political, sectarian and union rights;
5. loss of the right to own, publish or edit a newspaper or other publication;
6. loss of the right to assume leadership of a school or take on any other public or private educational function;
7. loss of the right to hold Syrian or foreign awards and honorary titles.
Furthermore, a prison sentence of between three months and three years may be imposed; if the convict does not hold Syrian citizenship, prison is mandatory.
1. A sentence to lifelong hard labor or life in prison necessarily entails the withdrawal of civil rights for life.
2. A sentence of fixed-term hard labor or imprisonment or a sentence of deportation or forced detention necessarily entails the loss of civil rights from the day the sentence comes into effect until the tenth year after the primary penalty has been served.
Anyone sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment or to forced detention due to a violation is barred from exercising the following civil rights while serving the sentence:
a. the right to assume public offices or functions;
b. the right to assume offices or functions in the civil administration or in the administrations of civil and sectarian communities or unions to which the person belongs;
c. active and passive voting rights in all state councils;
d. active and passive voting rights in all sectarian organizations and unions;
e. the right to hold Syrian or foreign awards.
The dissolution of the associations mentioned is possible in the cases mentioned in the previous article:
a. if the association violates the legal regulations for founding an organization;
b. if the association's founding purpose is in violation of the law; c. if the association violates legal regulations that require its dissolution;
d. if the founding of the association was stopped by a decision that came into effect less than five years earlier.
1. If an individual has committed multiple crimes or violations, each will be individually condemned, but only the most severe penalty will be carried out.
2. If someone has incurred multiple penalties, a total penalty will be established; the single penalties may be added together as long as the total penalty is not more than one and a half times greater than the highest penalty.
3. If the option to establish a total penalty is not exercised, the case will be referred back to the same judge for renewed decision.
1. Anyone who incites or attempts to incite another to commit a crime will be considered an instigator.
2. The instigator will be punished according to his own guilt without regard for the guilt of the person incited to commit the crime.
1. The instigator will be punished with the penalty designated for the crime instigated, independent of the inception, execution, or completion of the criminal act.
2. If the instigation of a crime or violation was unsuccessful, the penalty will be reduced by the degree stipulated in Article 219, Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4.
3. The instigation of an offense will not be punished if it was unsuccessful.
4. The instigator will incur the same preventative measures as the perpetrator.
The following people are considered participants in a crime or violation:
a. anyone who provides suggestions on committing the act, even if these suggestions do not contribute to its accomplishment;
b. anyone who in any way strengthens the resolve of the perpetrator;
c. anyone who, out of material or intellectual interest, accepts the perpetrator's offer to participate in a crime;
d. anyone who helps the perpetrator or supports actions that prepare for, facilitate or accomplish the crime;
e. anyone who, along with the perpetrator or another participant, arranges to commit a crime and engages in the elimination of evidence or in the concealment or alteration of the implement used in the crime, as well as anyone who helps other participants avoid criminal prosecution;
f. anyone who knows of the activities of criminals who have committed street robbery or violent acts against the security of the state or the security of the public or against people or property, as well as anyone who offers these people provisions, shelter, a hiding place or a place to assemble.
1. A participant, without whose help the crime would not have been committed, will receive the same punishment as the perpetrator.
2. If the perpetrator is condemned to death, the remaining participants will be sentenced to lifelong hard labor or fixed-term hard labor for between twelve and twenty years.
If the perpetrator is sentenced to lifelong hard labor or life imprisonment, the participants will be sentenced to the same penalty; at least ten years of the penalty must be served.
In all other cases, the penalty for the participants is equal to half of the penalty for the perpetrator.
The participants may incur the same preventative measures as the perpetrator.
1. If the perpetrator of a violation can point to mitigating circumstances, the penalty can be reduced to the minimum stated in Articles 51, 52, and 53.
2. Furthermore, with a well-founded decision, the court can change a prison sentence and forced detention into a prison sentence of up to ten days, so long as the deed in question is not a repeat offense.
1. Anyone who takes part in a plot against the security of the state and informs the authorities before the planned deed can be committed receives amnesty.
2. If such a deed has already been perpetrated or is in progress, only mitigating circumstances apply.
3. Mitigating circumstances also apply to any criminal who informs the authorities about a plot or other crimes against the security of the state before these crimes can be completed, as well as to any criminal who contributes to the capture of the other criminals or those who know their hideout—even if the prosecuting authorities are already active. 4. The provisions of this Article do not apply to the instigator.
1. Any Syrian who acts, speaks, writes texts or undertakes or tries to undertake similar actions with the purpose of partitioning off a portion of Syrian territory in order to annex it to a foreign state or to provide a foreign state with rights to which the Syrian state alone is entitled, will be punished with a sentence of no less than five years in prison.
2. If, at the time of the deed, the perpetrator belongs to one of the associations or organizations mentioned in Articles 288 and 307, he will be punished with life imprisonment.
Anyone in Syria who, during times of war or in anticipation of war, makes allegations that weaken national sentiment or incite racial or sectarian strife will be punished with imprisonment.
1. Anyone in Syria who, under the same circumstances, knowingly spreads false or exaggerated news that leads to a weakening of national sentiment will receive the same penalty.
2. Should the person in question spread such news without prior knowledge that it is false or exaggerated, the penalty will be at least three months imprisonment.
1. Any Syrian who knowingly spreads false or exaggerated information abroad that harms the prestige of the state or its financial position will be condemned to prison for at least six months and fined between 100 and 500 liras.
2. The court may publish the decision.
1. Anyone who joins a political or social association of an international character or any similar organization without authorization by the Syrian government will be punished with imprisonment or house arrest for between three months and three years, and fined between 100 and 250 liras.
2. Anyone in the organization in question who carries out a practical task will be punished with imprisonment or house arrest for a minimum of one year and fined at least 100 liras.
1. A conspiracy with the goal of committing one or more terrorist acts will be punished with ten to twenty years of hard labor.
2. Every terrorist act is to be punished with fifteen to twenty years of forced labor.
3. The act is to be punished with the death penalty if it results in the destruction or partial destruction of a public building, an industrial facility, a ship or other facility or the interruption of channels of communication or transport and traffic routes, or if it leads to the death of a person.
1. Any association founded with the purpose of changing the economic or social foundation of the state or the essential condition of society by the means mentioned in Article 304 will be dissolved; its members will be punished with fixed-term hard labor.
2. The association's founders and leaders will be punished with imprisonment for a minimum of seven years.
3. Amnesty or mitigating circumstances granted to conspirators pursuant to Article 262 also apply to the perpetrators mentioned in Paragraphs 1 and 2.
1. Any deeds committed, writings composed, or speeches held with the intention of inciting sectarian or racial strife or provoking conflict between the religions and the various members of the nation will be condemned to prison for between six months and two years, fined between 100 and 200 liras, and banned from exercising the rights noted in Paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 65.
2. The court may decide whether or not to publish the decision.
1. Any person belonging to an association established for the purpose referred to in the previous article will receive the same penalty.
2. If the perpetrator holds an office within the association, the minimum prison sentence will be one year and the fine at least 100 liras.
3. In addition, the association will be dissolved and its assets seized pursuant to Articles 109 and 69.
1. If two people form an association or make an agreement with the intention of committing crimes against people or property, they will be punished with fixed-term hard labor; if the deed was committed with the purpose of assaulting the life of another, the penalty will be at least seven years.
2. Anyone who reveals the purpose of the association or the agreement and all information that he has about all criminals, will receive amnesty.
1. Any group of three or more people who form an armed gang and take to public streets or towns with the intention of robbing passers-by and attacking people, damaging property, or committing predatory deeds will be sentenced to fixed-term forced labor for no less than seven years.
2. If one of the actions mentioned is accomplished, the penalty will be lifelong hard labor.
3. Anyone who, with the intention of committing such a crime, kills or attempts to kill another person or tortures or subjects another person to barbaric actions will be sentenced to death.
1. Any association is considered clandestine when its aims are contrary to the law and its activities carried out in partial or total secrecy; this regulation applies equally to groups that are comparable to an association. 2. Associations and the groups mentioned in the above clause, are also considered clandestine if it is proven that their aims are contrary to the law and that, upon inquiry, they have provided the appropriate authorities with no information or with false or incomplete information about the bylaws of the association, the names and roles of its members, the topics of its meetings or the association's assets and source of income.
1. Associations meeting the criteria of Article 327 will be dissolved and their assets seized.
2. Anyone holding an administrative or executive office in such an association will be condemned to prison for between six months and two years, and fined between 100 and 500 liras. The remaining members will receive half of the respective penalties.
1. If a member of a clandestine association has committed a crime in accordance with the aims of the association, any member present at the meeting in which the crime was planned will be considered an instigator and be punished pursuant to Article 217.
2. Any member who is caught at the scene of a crime while the crime is being committed will be considered a participant and punished as such pursuant to Article 219.
Anyone who yells inflammatory slogans or shows symbols intended to threaten public safety in a gathering that does not have the character of a private gathering, regardless of its intention, purpose, the number of those invited, the number of participants, or the location of the gathering, will be condemned to prison for between one month and one year, and fined 100 liras. The same penalty will apply to anyone who behaves similarly in a public place or in a place that is accessible or visible to the public, as well as to anyone who participates in riots of any kind.
Any gathering of people, any public demonstration or demonstration that takes place in a location accessible to the public is considered a riot if – three or more participants intend to commit a crime or violation and at least one of them is armed;
– at least seven participants intend to protest against decisions made or measures taken by state authorities in order to put pressure on these authorities;
– the number of participants exceeds twenty and their behavior is suited to disturb the public peace.
Participation will be punished with imprisonment for between one month and one year.
1. If the gathering does not disperse without the use of direct force, participants will be punished with a prison sentence of between two months and two years.
2. Anyone using a weapon will be punished with a prison sentence of between one and three years; in calculating the penalty, other harsher penalties imposed upon the same perpetrator will not be considered.